Chapter 1

Bush's De Facto Criminal Confession

"If Bush, the worst criminal in our nation's history, remains unaccountable for his unconscionable Iraq crimes, then what is the fairness or justification for anyone committing any lesser crime to ever be prosecuted?" Dick Fults

The Real Reasons Why Bush Attacked Iraq

Here are several unreported material facts about the Iraq war: Neither Iraq, nor the Iraq war, had anything whatsoever to do with either 9/11 or terrorism. Bush began planning for an Iraq attack in 1999, as a candidate for the Presidency.

Vincent Bugliosi, widely known for prosecuting and convicting Charles Manson, wrote in his 2008 book "The Prosecution of George W. Bush for Murder" "I present evidence against Bush that proves, beyond reasonable doubt, that he is guilty of (the) murder" of 4,450 American soldiers in Iraq.

The number of Iraqi civilians killed, originally reported as a "guesstimate" of perhaps 30,000 - 50,000 (Rumsfeld intentionally did not keep track), numbered over 800,000 by mid-2006, and more than twice than that now (as reported by Lancet, the British equivalent of our New England Journal of Medicine).

The number of American soldiers initially reported as suffering from the wound of "brain trauma" (permanent brain damage caused by blood vessels torn away from the brain by explosions) was belatedly increased by 32 fold -- from 10,000 to 320,000 -- in a 2009 Pentagon medical news conference. That increased the total number of Americans wounded in Iraq to over 650,000, including Psycho Traumatic Stress Disorder.

According to four highly credible, evaluated, and well corroborated intelligence reports -- reports that Bush was well aware of -- Iraq had no WMD since 1996. As a matter of fact, Bush deliberately falsified two of those reports, and buried all four of them – to hide them from Congress and the news media (see chapter 2). All of Bush's other pro war claims were simply phony pretexts for war – premeditated "phony facts," to brainwash us into attacking Iraq. He did that because all approvals for his attack were conditioned on the presence of WMD in Iraq; and he desperately wanted that attack to happen. Bush never had any evaluated intelligence reports that Iraq then currently had any WMD at all – only false allegations.

This unbelievable Iraq war history actually starts back in 1991 right after the first Iraq war. Bush Sr. had just concluded a very brief war. The American neoconservatives (neocons) were extremely upset with him because he had left Saddam Hussein in power in Iraq. They felt betrayed. They thought Saddam was a serious threat to Israel, and wanted to replace him with someone friendlier to Israel.

After 5 years of talking and plotting, three of them with dual American-Israeli citizenship moved to Jerusalem and developed a criminal, war crime Iraq attack plan called Clean Break. The lead author was Richard Perle. Their 1996 plan included a phony pretext for public consumption, to tell the public the myth that Iraq was threatening to attack them using WMD. The neocons were a cause looking for a sponsor.

Over 3 years later, after turndowns of that plan by both Israel and Clinton, the neocons approached Bush with that same criminal plan – this time armed with the false threat that Iraq intended to attack the US, using WMD. That phony threat would require the US to attack them first. Bush adopted that revised Clean Break plan as a candidate in 1999, complete with the original false threat.

Bush et al later operated a massive, national fear and fraud campaign out of Dick Cheney's office for over 17 months, to obtain congressional approval to attack Iraq as per Clean Break. One branch of the pro-war fraudulent propaganda squad operated out of the Pentagon -- the Office of Special Plans (OSP), reporting to Doug Feith, one of the authors of Clean Break. The other criminal branch operated out of Cheney's Office in the White House, chaired by Karl Rove and Karen Hughes. It was called the White House Iraq Group (WHIG).

According to the specific language of the law, their criminal actions caused all principals of both branches to become accessories before the fact to both fraud and murder.

In 1999, right after agreeing to hook up with the neocons and their plan, Bush immediately hired Perle to be his campaign advisor on foreign policy. Bush immediately became fully aware of the phony pretexts for war (the mythical threat of WMD) embedded within the Clean Break plan, as well as the fact that it was advocating a war crime.

It should be noted that immediately after Bush became President, Perle was appointed to be Chairman of the Pentagon's Defense Policy Board, the Pentagon's highest policy position. Only war crime advocating neocons were appointed to that board.

Meanwhile, the other two men who had coauthored the Clean Break war crime plan were also appointed to high ranking war policy positions. Douglas Feith was appointed to be the Under Sec. of the Dept. of Defense for Policy, and David Wurmser wound up eventually as the Middle East Policy advisor to Cheney, after first starting up an office in the Pentagon — The Office of Special Plans (OSP) -- that produced only fraudulent claims of threats from Iraq.

The Human Cost of the Iraq War

According to the credible statistics, Bush's criminal attack on Iraq caused the death of over 4,450 American service men and women, and the physical and mental psychological maiming of 650,000 more.

If any reader does not fully understand exactly what Bush deliberately did to our brave veterans, then they should visit the various patient wards at Walter Reed Hospital in Washington, DC: the amputee and body wound areas, and the largest two sets of victims (total 32,400), the brain trauma area (total 320,000 in Iraq), and the mostly outpatient sufferers of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, total 300,000).

The previously massively underreported Brain Trauma damage (originally incorrectly diagnosed as 10,000 simple concussions) was caused by nearby powerful explosions, such as IEDs. These explosions caused a very rapid movement of the body. But the inertia of the brain caused it to bounce around within the skull, tearing loose many vital blood connections. That in turn caused a large number of mini strokes, and much permanent damage (see source notes for this page on page 221).

A high proportion of these 650,000 American Iraq vets are physically or mentally damaged for life, and will require considerable care virtually forever, by both medical staff and a million or so family providers; plus very large sums of living support money, to allow them any kind of decent life.

The Bush war was responsible for the death of over 800,000 Iraqis (mostly women and children, blown apart and crushed). A million more Iraqis were maimed. Two million more were displaced.

Consider Bush's initial population intimidating (terrorist) "Shock & Awe" bombing attack. Tens of thousands of small Iraqi children were torn apart, slashed, or crushed in their rooms from falling debris.

Anyone, including small children, outside could be literally ripped apart by cluster bomb flechettes (anti-personnel bombs, exploding in the air, each bomb filled with and spraying a cloud of hundreds of tiny finned, bone penetrating darts, acting like miniature razor sharp knives). They cut right through clothing and could turn human beings into bloody clumps of raw hamburger, depending on bomb proximity. These extremely deadly bombs rained down indiscriminately in residential areas, ‘at one bomb per second for 3 straight days and nights.’ That is over 24,000 fleshettes every single minute! Note: seven years later, in August 2010, these deadly personnel cluster bombs dropped by Bush on innocent unprotected Iraqi civilians in 2003 were outlawed by international treaty, as being inhumane.

Could a legal action be brought against George Bush?

Vincent Bugliosi is a former Los Angeles County prosecutor. His record of convictions for felony jury trials is 105 out of 106. His record for murder convictions is 21 out of 21 offenders. He is the author of The Prosecution of George W. Bush for Murder (and the best seller Helter Skelter) and is currently the top legal expert in America on the criminal laws regarding Bush. He has the widespread admiration and respect of many of the best known attorneys in America, who say he is one of the best attorneys to ever practice law: both for the prosecution and the defense.

He is convinced that the evidence proves Bush deliberately lied to start an unjustified war with Iraq. He says that Bush et al's deliberate fraud "proves criminal intent, and negates any claim of self-defense." After extensive research, Bugliosi concluded that there was nothing in the laws that prohibited an ex-president from being prosecuted for murders committed by him while in office. Bugliosi says that any capable state or federal prosecutor should be able to convict Bush on the charge of murdering 4,450 American soldiers.

Bugliosi cites the law applicable to Bush et al: "The federal statutory authority for prosecuting Bush for conspiracy to commit murder and for first (or second) degree murder would be 18 U.S.C. SS's 1117 (Conspiracy) and 1111 (Murder)."

Bugliosi points out that, under U.S. law, we cannot try Bush here for his fully evidenced murder of Iraqis; only the 4,450 Americans.

He explains the applicable law:

"If a conspirator (or anyone for that matter) deliberately sets in motion a chain of events that he knows will cause a third-party innocent agent to commit an act (here, the killing of American soldiers by Iraqis) [defending their country against an attack], the conspirator is criminally responsible for that act. In the law, as in its well-known sense, the word" ‘cause" means ‘to bring about, to bring into existence.’ Bush, in ‘unjustifiably’ invading Iraq, certainly brought about the existence of Iraqi opposition, and his act caused the Iraqis to kill American soldiers in much the same fashion that a person causes a gun to fire a bullet that kills someone by pulling the trigger."

"In fact, in the criminal law, third-party innocent agents are referred to as ‘mere instruments’ of the principal. To argue that Bush isn't responsible in this case would almost be the equivalent of a conspirator arguing, "My coconspirator never killed the victim, his gun did."

"In many states and federally, the innocent agent doctrine is even codified. Title 18 United States Code SS2(b) provides: "Whoever willfully causes an act to be done which if directly performed by him…would be an offense against the United States, is punishable as a principal." The above is also called the "vicarious liability rule of conspiracy." In addition, there is a separate companion legal theory of criminal responsibility --- the law of "aiding and abetting."

"The heart of conspiracy complicity is the agreement among the co-conspirators to commit the crime, whose heart is participatory in nature. In very general terms, one is guilty of a crime of under the theory of aiding and abetting if he instigates or encourages the commission of the offense (in the law, to instigate is "to stimulate or goad to action, especially a bad action"), or assists the perpetrator in some way in the commission of said offense. Here, Bush clearly instigated the killing of the American soldiers by his invasion of Iraq, which is all that would be necessary, in itself, to make Bush guilty of murder under the theory of aiding and abetting. So Bush would be criminally responsible for the deaths of the 4,000 (now 4,450) American soldiers under both legal theories of vicarious liability and aiding and abetting".

Bugliosi is not the only ex prosecutor who is convinced that Bush et al committed crimes.

Elizabeth de la Vega is a former federal prosecutor with more than twenty years of experience. During her tenure, she was a member of the Organized Crime Strike Force and Chief of the San Jose Branch of the US Attorney's Office for the Northern District of California.

De La Vega focuses on the case against Bush for fraud rather than murder. In 2005, she wrote an article entitled: Conspiracy to Defraud the United States: Misrepresenting the Truth in Order to Sell a War is A "High Crime." In that article she states that "President Bush and Vice President Cheney had clearly committed numerous specific crimes while in office. That article focused on a Conspiracy to Defraud the United States (a violation of Title 17, United States Code, Section 371)." Its statute of limitations will not expire until around 2013 or 2014.

De la Vega points out the law states that crime "is an agreement to use deceit and misrepresentation to ‘obstruct or impair’ the normal functioning of government. Violations covered under this statute have been charged numerous times, including against defendants in the Watergate case and the Iran/contra scandal… Conspiracies are proved by evidence, of what people do and say, both publicly and behind the scenes…. To defraud, means to influence people to go along with your proposal by using deceit….The crime is complete once a person uses misrepresentation with the intent to provide a false picture. ‘Fraud’ includes deliberate misrepresentations, outright lies, half-truths, and statements made with reckless disregard for the truth. Bush and Cheney used all of these methods to convince the public and congress to agree to their plan to invade Iraq."

She published a book in 2006, United States v. George W. Bush, which vividly describes a hypothetical grand jury investigation of Bush's Conspiracy to Defraud the United States. That book contains over 150 pages of specific, documented, source referenced, hard evidence of Bush and Cheney's intentional and knowing violations of that anti-fraud law.

De la Vega has defined the criteria for the crime of Fraud, and Bugliosi has defined the criteria for the crime of Murder. The evidence clearly shows that Bush et al's words and actions re Iraq fit both those criteria exactly. They are collectively guilty of both crimes. Bush et al agreed to commit fraud on the public about the false need to unjustifiably start a war on Iraq, and then they all agreed to attack Iraq. American soldiers were murdered by that Bush et al premeditated terrorist attack.

Doctrine of Felony Murder

In summary, this doctrine state that if a person sets out to knowingly murder one person and in that act accidently kills another 99 people, then they are criminally responsible for the murder of all 100 people killed.

In an effort to both inform and mobilize Americans concerning the potential for legal action against George W. Bush and his circle, this book will present seven powerful and compelling major proofs of guilt for their crimes of fraud and murder. These proofs were chosen because they were the most blatant lies about the most important issues, had the clearest contrast with truth, were most easily proven with documented evidence, and most easily verified with public domain evidence. You will clearly see how very self-evident they are. From your personal following of the news about Iraq, you will also quickly recognize how undisclosed they were.

Major Proof of Bush's Guilt #1, in the Mass Murder of 4,450 American Soldiers:

Starting a few weeks after 9/11 and continuing through the end of his initial attack on Iraq, with no evaluated evidence, Bush repeatedly publicly claimed or implied that Iraq had attacked us on 9/11. He specifically said Iraq was complicit with al Qaeda and others in terrorism, and that Iraq intended to attack us again, but with WMD, and especially with nuclear weapons, and very soon. He not only claimed the above lies, but further proclaimed that we urgently needed to attack them before they attacked us! Any such attack on Iraq without solid, hard documented evidence of his claims of justification would be a war crime. Those claims were the centerpiece of his campaign of deliberate fear and fraud to obtain approval from Congress and the UN for his attack on Iraq.

But just six months after his unjustified attack on Iraq, on September 17, 2003 in answer to a reporter's question, asking did we have any actual evidence that Iraq was involved with the attack on 9/11? Bush responded: "No, we've had no evidence that Saddam Hussein was involved with (the al Qaeda attack on) September the eleventh." That single line was his only statement on the subject: Bush made no qualifications of any kind. Just weeks earlier, both Rumsfeld and Wolfowitz had admitted the same thing.

As a test in simple logic, before you read any further, see if you can figure out the shocking reality of what Bush was actually saying–and using what logic.

That de facto criminal confession by Bush was the most important single news story to come out of the entire Iraq war! What should have happened is that every paper in the country should have run, the next day, a full width, front page headline that said:


Imagine, if all the country's papers had printed either of those headlines, and followed it up with a complete analysis of the full implications of what Bush had said, many people would have cried out for immediate criminal proceedings against George W. Bush! But that simply did not happen.

Out of the hundreds of newspapers in the entire country, only three reported Bush's one line admission on their front page; the Chicago Tribune, and the LA Times among them. Twenty or so other papers -- including the NY Times and the Washington Post (perhaps the two most influential) -- buried it in their back pages. But absolutely none of them reported any factual analysis of Bush's statement, or its full criminal enormity!

The ultra-conservative newspaper, the Wall Street Journal, did not even report that critical headline news at all. It had gone so far earlier as to actually editorially endorse the original criminal, war crime Clean Break plan in 1996, within two days after it had been presented to the State of Israel!

Look very closely at the words Bush used in his 2003 admission/confession. The word "we've" is a contraction of "we have." In this case the imperial "we" means any person or agency in Bush's administration. The term "we have had no evidence" is a past tense of the present tense "we have no evidence." Note that Bush did not say, "we previously had evidence, but we found it was wrong." The term "we have had no evidence," means they never had any evidence in the past or, more accurately meant "no evidence of any involvement between Iraq and 9/11 or al Qaeda had ever existed!"

Stop and think about the full meaning of Bush's admission. One quickly becomes aware that Bush himself was fully aware, and saying that ‘no evidence of any involvement by Iraq in 9/11 or with al Qaeda had ever existed: period.’ By definition, Bush clearly said that no evidence had ever existed prior to the start of his non-stop tirade of claims against Iraq in early October 2001, or while his was making those claims, and not even afterwards. His almost daily tirades lasted for 17 months before his attack on Iraq, and consisted of warmongering claims he made about Iraq being involved in 9/11 with al Qaeda, intending to attack us, with WMD, and us needing to urgently attack them before they attacked us again, but next time with an atomic bomb!

Bush, the sitting President of our country – our government leader -- had the audacity, disrespect for human life, and the shameful arrogance to actually and emphatically lie to us virtually on a daily basis for almost one and one half years, about a non-existent dangerous threat from Iraq. He was emphatically advocating that we should attack another country for that never-existent threat. Upon obtaining his fraudulently obtained approval for war, he did actually attack them: with all the severe death and destruction that caused.

All the facts in the several paragraphs above were a matter of public record in September 2003. This is being written in 2011, and no public criminal disclosure or criminal investigation of the "worst crime in our history" has yet happened. If you figure out the logic in that situation, please let me know what it is! It sounds like a great many people have been deliberately protecting the murderers, Bush et al, from justice for the past eight years, including two years of the Obama administration. If that failure to act responsibly and lawfully was supposedly based on a lack of the true facts, the documented factual disclosures in this book end that excuse right now!

Through elementary logic, his one line statement about evidence never existing was a de facto criminal confession that his entire 17 month long public campaign for attacking Iraq was both outright deliberate fraud and premeditation for murder!

Serious Questions for History – And Today

Regarding the criminal truth about Bush in his Iraq war, the mainstream news media, the Dept. of Justice, and all of Congress collectively abandoned the American people at a critical, dangerous moment in our history. The big question is "WHY?"

Their collective complete disregard of their own code of ethics and individual oaths of office, caused them to deliberately ignore both reporting and acting upon the ugly, true criminal facts of Bush's Iraq war – for over 8 years now. Those facts had been available in the public domain for many years, but their possible view of them was that they were "crank" facts or comments – not worthy of their time and attention.

Either that, or they were desperately afraid of the dynamic, politically upsetting consequences of such a massive, documented revelation, and of the widespread exposure of the unconscionable crimes committed by Bush and 40 of his top level co-conspirators!

Without any careful evaluation of those true criminal facts, their personal biases, reluctant supervisors, and general political cowardice caused them to be completely indifferent to our basic rule of law regarding the well documented murderer, Bush. Whenever probable cause exists that a mass murder of thousands has been committed (especially when it's been personally verified by one of our country's leading criminal prosecutors, Vince Bugliosi), the law and common sense requires that it be investigated. So why has this massive crime not yet been investigated; years after the fact?

That probable cause is presented and documented within this book, in spades! All that is now required is for the US Attorney General to actually read it, as well as the US Attorney for the DC area: and then actually act upon those facts, by investigating Bush for murder! A copy of this book is being mailed to both of them upon publication, including a copy to President Obama's Senior Advisor, Valerie Jarrett! All of their above positions are also (fictionally) featured in the Ch. 8 Epilogue of this book. I also include in that book distribution, the editor of my home town newspaper for the last 35 years, the Washington Post; in the hope that he will serialize my Chapter One, on his front page, at no charge from me! It's all about Truth and Justice!

This actual true, but inconceivable, unreported story of an ex-President's deliberate mass murder of thousands of American troops under his command, along with him causing the wounding of another 650,000 US troops (most for life), and the murder by him of 800,000 innocent civilians during a $3 trillion unjustified war he fraudulently concocted over several years, with a massive public campaign of fear and fraud, is hundreds of magnitudes bigger in scope than both the Pentagon Papers and the Watergate Cover Up stories combined!


Repressed by our Mainstream News Media for Over 8 Years, And Still Counting!

This is true, fully documented reality -- not fiction. Unbelievable as it sounds, all the hard evidence from the public domain is here to prove it!

So where are the best-selling, month's long investigative headline news reports from either the New York Times or the Washington Post of old, and the TV evening news? More importantly, why have they been repressing this startling story all these years; and still today? Why do they continue their outright denial of reality?

Please Note: Five more proofs of guilt are yet to be seen in the full book!

The Author

Before turning to the private sector, I had been trained and served for several years in Air Force Operational Intelligence (Top Secret Security clearance). My long working career in the private sector – I have an MBA in Finance and Computer Science -- was in business operational planning, analysis, and operational trouble shooting. I found and solved many major problems by finding patterns of facts unnoticed by others, determining which small dots were relevant to the larger issue, and then simply connecting them. I have worked extensively with attorneys over the years.

I had become aware of Bush et al's Iraq criminality through the simple logic of connecting the obvious factual criminal dots back in late 2004 when the first several books of the independent investigative authors were published. When no one else that I noticed publicized the obvious, self-evident ‘criminal’ implications, I initiated an ad-free public website to publicize Bush et al's criminal fraud and murder; in June 2006, in Bush Crimes.

Source References (with publish dates)

Virtually all of the individual historical facts of Bush et al's Iraq war planning and execution were published by the following investigative authors over the past several years. But, each writer was telling only their part of the overall Iraq war history and, later, only two of those authors addressed the criminality issue. To my knowledge they were the only former criminal prosecutors who had written about Bush and Iraq, so that may explain why they alone, among all the other authors, had focused on the criminality of Bush's actions.

This is the first time and only place that 1) the pertinent well documented facts of these 17 authors are combined and focused as collective evidence of major crimes committed by Bush et al and, 2) the full range of historical published facts from all known sources have been combined and focused as evidence of murder committed by Bush et al in Iraq.

Richard Clarke in Against All Enemies (2004), Ron Suskind in The Price of Loyalty (2004), and in The Way of the World (2008), James Bamford in Pretext For War (2004), Justin Frank, M.D., Bush on the Couch (2004), Nafeez M. Ahmed, The War on Truth, (2005), James Risen in State of War (2006), Michael Isikoff and David Corn in Hubris (2006), John Prados in Hood-Winked (2004), Frank Rich in The Greatest Story Ever Sold (2006).

Elizabeth de la Vega in Conspiracy to Defraud the United States (2005) and United States v. George W. Bush et al (2006), Christopher Sheer, Robert Sheer, and Laksjmi Chaudhry in The Five Biggest Lies Bush Told Us About Iraq (2003), Karen Kwiatkowski PhD. in The New Pentagon Papers (2004), Lancet in Iraqi Dead May Total 800,000, Int'l. Herald Tribune, Oct. 11, 2006, Vincent Bugliosi in The Prosecution of George W. Bush For Murder (2008), and in The Betrayal of America (2001).

Dave Davies in Interview with Suskind (2008), Penny Coleman in Flashback (2006, plus updates), Russ Baker in Two Years Before 9/11, Candidate Bush was Already Talking Privately About Attacking Iraq, According to His Former Ghost Writer (Mickey Hershkowitz) (2004); and numerous news sources.

Source Notes for Chapter 1

Reference Guide for Chapter 1 of Book, Proof of Guilt
Page Key Topic Source
5 Clean Break Plan James Bamford, Pretext for War, 261-65
6 Hussein Kamel ibid, 319-20
6-7 Iraq Clinton Letter Internet, Plan for New American Century
8-9 Herschkowitz/Bush 2 yrs, Russ Baker
11-13 Al Qaeda 9/11 attack Vincent Bugliosi, The Prosecution of GW Bush for Murder, 176-87
11-13 CIA Report Isikoff and Corn, Hubris, 112-13
11-13 Chalabi Isikoff & Corn, Hubris, 49-54, Pretext for War, 291-7
11 Iraq-al Qaeda James Bamford, Pretext for War, 317-18
12-13 WHIG ibid, 318-20, 367-77, Frank Rich, Greatest Story Ever Sold, 189-92, James Bamford, 318-20
13 NIE-White Paper John Prados, Hoodwinked, 32-93, Bugliosi, Prosecution of GW Bush for Murder, 106-16
13-14 No WMD in Iraq Also see notes for pages 50-60
13-14 IAEA Report Frank Rich, Greatest Story Ever Sold, 70-72
14 Bush Admits No Iraq-9/11 Tie V. Bugliosi, The Prosecution of GW Bush for Murder, 137-39
15 Dead 4,450 Official count
15 Wounded Over 32,400, official count
15 PTSD Over 300,000 at historic rate of 16%, in WWI and Vietnam, Penny Coleman, Flashback and internet updates
15 Brain Trauma Injury 2006 Rand study, Nora Eisenberg,, 3/17/09, Gen. Loree Sutton, Pentagon news conference Mar. 4, 2009, said over 360,000 wounded. Military had admitted to only 10,000 prior to that news conference.
16 800,000 Iraqi Dead Lancet, Iraqi Dead May Total 800,000, Intl. Herald Tribune, Oct. 11, 2006
17 Vincent Bugliosi The Prosecution of GW Bush for Murder
19 Elizabeth de la Vega United States v. George W Bush
22-25 Bush Admits No Iraq-9/11 Tie Also see prior page 14
27-29 Bush's Report to Congress Vincent Bugliosi, The Prosecution of GW Bush for Murder, 18-22
28-31 Silence of Mainstream News Media re Bush Iraq criminality, check the factual record: none ever mentioned
31-32 Polls Vincent Bugliosi, The Prosecution of GW Bush for Murder, 137
33-34 Murder definitions, criteria ibid, 86-107
50 Hussein Kamel no WMD, James Bamford, Pretext for War, 319-20
50-51 Allen Report no WMD, James Risen, State of War, 85-107
52-57 Sabri Report no WMD, Ron Suskind, The Way of the World, 179-82, 383-85
55-57 Habbush Report no WMD, ibid, 361-371
58-60 ElBarabei, IAEA Report Also see prior page 14